At the beginning of the study, 5 rats were sacrificed Ctr-rats, M0. These results suggest that a substantial proportion of the population that would be recommended to consume phytosterol and phytostanol supplemented foods could be made worse by these products. Histological examination further indicated that PSEs treatment significantly alleviated liver steatosis.
Besides, it has been demonstrated that phenolics have the ability to ameliorate hepatic lipid accumulation in rodent fed a high-fat diet [ 7 ]. In previous studies, the dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism has received much less attention than the involvement of FAs and TGs in this disease 5.
Analysis was performed using SPSS Eur J Lipid Sci Tech. The high-fat diet's effects on blood glucose are more discrepant and depend on the type of dietary regimen. Moreover, OS has been closely related to cardiovascular diseases [ 20 ] linked with diabetes.
Diet composition has been considered an important factor in the impairment of insulin activity [ 28 ]. High-fat diet reduces the levels of hepatic antioxidants, which induces oxidative stress remarkably [ 2930 ].
Obesity is a complex, chronic disease, involving decades of pathophysiological changes and adaptation.
Generation of superoxide radical during autoxidation of hydroxylamine and an assay for superoxide dismutase. But unfortunately, most of these micronutrients are lost during the oilseed oil refining. Therefore, cage placement, mice density, food quality, mice handling, beddings and mice-check frequency will all results in disturbance of the development of obesity in experimental mice.
Histological scoring of hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning, and fibrosis was performed by pathologists who were blinded to the group assignments. In order to increase the levels of these micronutrients in rapeseed oil, some improving processing technologies [ 17 ] which can preserve the content of these micronutrients in rapeseed oil have been researched, and artificially adding micronutrients to refined oil may be another simple and expedient method.
However, although most unwanted components are removed, the traditional processing technology currently used in the world extraction and refining markedly decreases the content of these micronutrients, which will have an adverse effect on the protection of cardiovascular system.
Abstract Background Micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols in rapeseed exert potential benefit to cardiovascular system, but most of these micronutrients are removed by the refining process.
After a 1-week acclimation period, the animals were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each: These levels are the same as the levels we used in our previous study [ 31 ].
Phytosterol esters attenuate hepatic steatosis in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease rats fed a high-fat diet. Mice were provided feed and tap water ad libitum. The lipid profile, liver and kidney function, hepatic lipid content and histopathological changes were observed.
The present study tried to investigate that whether rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols can reduce atherosclerosis risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet, exercise and medication are seen as the key factors that regulate the serum lipid profile.
The present study examined the effect of reducing atherosclerosis risk factors by artificially adding micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols to refined rapeseed oil. The glutathione GSH content was determined by the method of Moron [ 14 ].
Figure 2 Effects of rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols on hepatic TG and TC contents of rats fed a high-fat diet. Several types of cholesterol-lowering medications, including statins, are available on the market and are taken alone or in combination with other medications.
Phytosterols have a similar chemical structure with cholesterol but themselves are absorbed only in trace amounts [ 32 ], thus they inhibit cholesterol absorption including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol which is a key step in cholesterol elimination [ 32 ].
It has been reported that catechins are able to decrease hepatic lipogenesis by regulating different enzyme activities. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, coenzyme Q and tocopherols, and the joint actions of all these bioactive molecules may contribute to prevent the risk of atherosclerosis.
Therefore, artificially adding these micronutrients to refined oil may be another simple and expedient method. In fact, oxidative stress is the unifying mechanism for many CVD risk factors [ 26 ].
· At the end of the experiment (t 12), the weights of the high-fat diet-fed rats were slightly higher than those of the rats in the NC group, but no significant differences were observed among all Cited by: 8.
· Methods. High-fat diet (HFD), high-fructose beverages (HF) or both (HFHF) were compared to rats fed with normal diet (ND) for 8 months to induce T2D and its metabolic, oxidative, and functional complications.
· Effects of rapeseed oil fortified with micronutrients (polyphenols, tocopherols and phytosterols) on the level of IL-6 and CRP in plasma of rats fed a high-fat diet. RRO: the refined rapeseed oil group; L. M- and H- FRRO: fortified refined rapeseed oil with low, middle and high contents of micronutrients robadarocker.com by: Conjugated linoleic acid and phytosterols counteract obesity induced by high-fat dietCited by: For example, the outbred Spraque-Dawley rats when fed with high-fat diet have different responses with regard to the development of obesity.
In the mice, the A/J mouse and C57BL/KsJ mouse are relatively resistant to high-fat diet when compared to C57BL/6J mouse (6).Cited by: · [22 – 24] showed that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil ( g total phytosterols/kg diet) induced higher systolic blood pressure than a diet containing soybean oil ( g total phytosterols/kg diet) in SHRSP, SHR and WKY rats and thus thought that the higher content of phytosterols in rapeseed oil was related to the increased blood robadarocker.com by: